= helper verb to indicate possibility

  • られる: used for godan verbs
  • る: used for all other verbs (+ -e stem)

Note: Don’t forget to switch the が Subject when using this helper verb (“object” becomes new “subject”), because the object “becomes” the new subject


  • 私が本を読む → 私は本が読める。
  • 私がケーキを食べる → 私はケーキが食べられる。
    • this looks like Japanese Passive, but isn’t
      • in non-formal speech, the ら often gets dropped
      • → 食べれる